By Oscar Swan
A Concise Grammar of Polish is meant to be used as a supplementary reference textual content at the starting and intermediate degrees of Polish language examine. it's also compatible to be used because the basic textual content in a direction on Polish morphology (although routines would have to be supplied via the instructor).
Phonological and morphological methods are given specific therapy and representation all through. Sections on declension and conjugation objective at a whole description of all typical and so much abnormal phenomena. Descriptions of types are liberally supplemented with comments bearing on derivation, utilization, and variations among Polish and English.
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Extra resources for A concise grammar of Polish
Ach -om -ami =Npl. N A G L D I V Singular ryba/ląka rybę/łąkę ryby/łąki rybie/łące = Lsg. rybą/łąką rybo/łąko Plural ryby/łąki = Npl. ryb/łąk rybach/łąkach rybom/łąkom rybami/łąkami = Npl. As noted above, syncretism creates a situation in which all paradigms share at least some endings across two or more case/number slots. These will be indicated by showing such case identities with an equal sign and a reference to the identical case. , hard feminine a-nouns have such syncretisms in the dative singular, as well as the accusative and vocative plural.
The morphological paradigm of masculine nouns in a vowel is something of a hybrid: the singular that follows the feminine a-noun declensional pattern, while the plural follows the masculine zero-noun pattern. Therefore, the singular forms are phonologically divided into same two major categories that apply to feminine a-nouns, based on whether the stem ends in hard or soft. g. turysta 'tourist', starosta 'group leader', kolega 'colleague') share the feminine singular property of having the -e ending in both dative and locative, together with a morphophonemic change (turyście, staroście, koledze), while soft stems (radca 'advisor', woźnica 'coachman', doża 'doge (Italian leader)', Kucia 'Kucia (surname)') share the syncretic GDLsg.
Ending in a single or double consonant), as follows: 1. Noun stems ending in a single consonant which behave as if they ended in cluster, taking the Gpl. -y/-i ending instead of zero. g. obroża ‘dog collar’. 2. Noun stems ending in a consonant cluster which behave as if they ended in a single consonant, taking the zero ending in the Gpl. instead of -y/-i. g. tarcza ‘shield’. Other minor exceptions to feminine -a declension. Exception 1. Feminine nouns with stem-final in -ns. g. szansa ‘chance’ [ša_ wsa]).
A concise grammar of Polish by Oscar Swan