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By Petr Sgall, Ladislav Nebeský, Alla Goralčíková, Eva Hajičová

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On the higher levels, besides the elementary units shown in Figure 4, similar devices should perhaps be used (cf. 2. 1). As to points (b) to (e), on the phonetic level the distinctive features are divided into such subsets as voiced-voiceless, short-long, etc. A virtual sound can be specified as a combination of distinctive features from these subsets (which are mutually disjoint ; cf. Section 2. 2) . The set of well-formed sounds is, however, only a proper subset of the set of virtual sounds (in English as well as in Czech, for instance, the feature voiceless cannot be combined with that of nasality) .

With page 30) ; it might be useful to insert a unit realizing the two meanings and realized by the two stem formemes (cf. Section 2. 1 . 6). One could speak of a single naming unit (for this term, cf. g. Vachek's English summary of Mathesius, 1 961) realized by two differ­ ent formemes and realizing two different meanings. We shall call an elementary unit of the phenogrammatical level a tagmeme ; then three kinds of tagmemes should be distinguished : the lexical tagmemes, the syntactic tagmemes, termed sentence parts, and the morphological tag­ memes, termed suffixes .

A proposition is regarded here as a representation of a sentence on the tectogrammatical level ; however, a des­ cription of language certainly should account for cases of synonymy between a single sentence and a sequence of several sentences ; so that it appears necessary to reckon with cases where a single proposition is realized by a sequence of sentences . n Units Level tectogrammatical I - I T 1 proposition - C - semanteme R phenogrammatical R syntagmeme - C - tagmeme - I R I morphemic - formeme - C - seme - C- morpheme - I R I morph --£ - morphophoneme (morpho-)phonemic I R I .

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A Functional Approach to Syntax In Generative Description of Language by Petr Sgall, Ladislav Nebeský, Alla Goralčíková, Eva Hajičová


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